STOCKLINCH

Johnson's Acre; exterior


          

Johnson's Acre: late ceiling abutting on jettied joists.


          

The original house was just over SO' long, with 4 bays. It has been modified in every century since it was built, without substantial detriment to he medieval frame. We are much indebted to the present owners, Mr. and Mrs. J. Packham, who have carried out comprehensive restoration, since they have been able to describe some features which have been changed or concealed and others whose significance might not have been readily apparent.

The house was constructed with three internal cruck frames, at slightly irregular intervals; the original east end is of post-and-truss construction, with a thick cob wall below, while the west end has been completely rebuilt recently, but pparently on the site of the original plinth. The cruck frames (and we unite Mr. Packham's observations with our own) are complete, and all blades are entire in principle and are markedly cranked. There are three lines  of purlins, the lowest of which are almost directly above the front and back walls. The northern blade of the central truss is narrow at the baseand has been broadened by a splint, rising c.6', where it fits in a notch, dowels holding it in place. The adjacent blade to the west has been flattened as though to receive a similar supplement, but there is no notch and no dowel holes; this blade alone could be seen to extend to ground level, but we were assured that the rest do so. Both blades of this western frame were too short to reach the apex and were extended above the collar15,  with weak joints which have cracked (mortice on blade, tenon on extension). At the east, post-and-truss, end, there are 4 studs between tie-beam and collar, none above.

The central frame is flush with the back of the present hall chimney. If the original end of the living area of the house was at the same place, the hall occupied a bay of just under 14', beyond which was a service room of just over 10'. Above the service room was built a chamber16, whose floor joists were anchored in the cob wall to the east and jettied out into the hall to give added size (Plate Vllb). The end of the chamber next to the open hall is framed, with rod, wattle and daub filling, and a relevant detail is that after the present owner had rendered and white- washed the area, the saturation of smoke worked through and dark patches can be seen on the hall side.

Half of the house lay west of the hall, giving a length of 20' after allowing for an entry, and whether or not the area was subdivided, we think it likely that the medieval use was much the same as it is today - a storage area for implements, fuel and produce (not least apples), and a workshop. In addition, unless there was an outside building, it would have been the cider cellar; when documentation becomes available, for the early 18th century, a third of the 15 acres or so of land was orchard. As such the building is the nearest which we have seen to a close successor to the long-house, accommodating man and stock. The present doorways may be relevant. They are not on their original site and the frames may be replacements, but, at 5' wide and 7' high, they are not domestic.

In the sixteenth century the hall fireplace was inserted, with a FHI hood and the hall was ceiled. A formal passage, with a stud-and-plank partition, was made to the west, and the area beyond became a ground-floor room with chamber over. A part of the partition and, above, a wooden 'Tudor' doorway and some mortices for floor joists remain as evidence. There is nothing to show that the room beyond the passage was heated, and it may have continued to be used for storage and semi-domestic work. A wooden newel staircase, in the same line as the fireplace, survived till recently.

 

In the seventeenth century, the house was extended at the east end. A parlour with fireplace was built, with a FH2 hood (now removed) and a chamber above. Other work helping to date the improvements was the use of beams with scroll stops in the parlour and the insertion of a three-light wooden framed window with ovolo mouldings in the service-room. The new end wall was timber-framed, but in a different manner. A sill-beam bears corner posts and 6 slender studs, the present ones apparently being replacements, since they are halved into the tie-beam. Between tie-beam and collar are 4 studs, and there is one from collar to apex17. The use of transverse rods as a base for daub is further evidence of late work. The back wall was framed, though it is impossible now to know how; a section has been preserved below a window, showing it to have been some 6' thick, with wattle and daub.

The front of the house is now of rubble, which may belong to this phase of development or may be earlier, the absence of a straight joint not being significant. At a time undetermined, the long distance from the entrance passage to the parlour was found inconvenient, since two-thirds of the service-room window was cut away, with the wall below, and a front door was inserted. The service-room thus became a wide passage, not however with a door to the back. And at the other end of the house, though not necessarily at the same time, the passage partition and end room were unceiled and the whole area became non-domestic.

The 18th century inventory mentioned above refers to this house, and it is reproduced as Appendix A.

ii. Crockers.

 

Crockers; lower-end parlour

This was the house for the largest copyhold, its 25 acres representing 30 by Somerset customary measure. The land was scattered, mostly in Stocklinch Magdalen but part in Ottersey, and nearly half, in the 1792 survey, was in the unenclosed fields. When the copyhold fell in, the land was redistributed, and for over a century the property has consisted of only house, garden and a small orchard. The house has been declining over many years, though one of us had the advantage of seeing part of it while it was still a home, with a snug living-room furnished and decorated more after the fashion of the nineteenth century than the twentieth. Cooking was still done over an open fire, by the side of which was a large high settle, placed so as to keep off draughts. The old lady who lived there sat in the fireplace to tend her kettle or pot, hung above a small fire.

 

The central skeleton of the house has stayed unimpaired, in the form of two jointed cruck trusses, of a type more primitive than we have seen elsewhere. The upright members are deeper and more curved at the head than the usual form, which has a fairly precise transition from upright post to rafter. The first impression, in fact was of a well-cranked entire cruck, until the joints were found beneath thick paint. There are two 13' bays and a longer one, over 16½', to the west. Traces of an earlier post-and-truss frame remain at the west end, in the form of the tie-beam, grooved to receive rods, and holes in the rafters; there are no traces of former studs. As at Johnson's Acre, there were 3 purlins on each side, those of the long bay being much bent in spite of a scantling of 11' by 6'.


The principle of the original house plan was evidently the same as at Johnson's Acre, a living area east of the entry, storage to the west. The building being low, it is likely that there was not an original upper room, and that the living part comprised a hall and an inner chamber, both open to the roof. The building is wide enough for the inner part to have been subdivided.


Sixteenth century improvements were so extensive as to suggest a rise in status of the occupier, and also that the theoretically inferior copyhold tenure was no deterrent to the betterment of housing. The hall was developed by means of a fireplace, stone at the back and outer side, timber- framed on the inner side. Above was built a FHI hood, in which, however, some rods are visibly horizontal. The entrance to the room has a 'Tudor' doorway and is between the fireplace and a wooden newel staircase. The back of the staircase is of stud-and-plank, as are partitions within the hall, forming two small rooms. The partitions are morticed into sill- and head-beams. A 'Tudor' doorway gave access to one inner room, from which a similar doorway led to the other; the entrances were later altered. The ceiling of the hall is framed, with four large compartments. One small back window frame is original, keeled stops identifying its period.


Tudor' outer doorframes are massive and (not the doors) are the only original ones which survive among the group of houses. Across the passage is a wall of rectangular timber framing, filled by horizontal rods and daub. The doorway through this leads to what was a spacious lower-end parlour, more lofty than the hall (Plate Vile) and occupying the whole, and more, of the original west end of the house. Whatever may have been the filling under the original western truss was removed, to allow the parlour to be extended under the tie-beam for some 4'.


The result was an almost square room, with a coffered ceiling. This has 16 compartments, all with plain, deep chamfers, the central beams being larger, and cambered. On the side nearest the road was built a lateral fireplace, close to the passage, the stonework being integral with that of the outer wall; and the sole light for the room was next to the fireplace, from a window later extended to form a bay. Both front and rear walls were carried on a short distance beyond the end of the parlour, to provide a small store, accessible only from the outside. Between store and parlour is a framed partition, similar to that between parlour and passage. The 1792 survey mentions farm buildings, of which some foundations remain, and, should they have been built in the 16th century, there would be a reason for the reduction of storage space within the house.


No clear conclusion can be reached about the front wall. The whole wall is now of stone, but it would be hard to say whether part is original or the whole belongs to the 16th century improvements. The back wall of the original living end of the house is of cob, while that enclosing the parlour is of stone.

The reduction of standing of the property in the 19th century is reflected in the house. Out- buildings mentioned in the 1792 survey perhaps went first; in any event, an inferior extension was tacked on to the west of the house. This was the area for cider manufacture till 1970. An iron cheese press was used for the purpose and was seen by one of us on a preliminary visit. The fine parlour became a miscellaneous store, a back entrance being cut through the partition. Its chimney was truncated and blocked and, upstairs, was cut into, to provide a window for the room above. In the main house, reduced to its original living length, a door was cut from the hall into the inner service-room, which, provided with a fireplace, became a tiny parlour.


iii. Brakes Cottage.

 

This building was classified as a house, not a cottage, in the 1792 survey. There is no documentation about its occupants save a name at that date; and all that can be said is that the tenure was copyhold, including an acre of garden and orchard, the same area as now. Remaining structural elements in their original position are few, since the roof was raised when the house was modern- ised in the late sixteenth or early seventeenth century. At the cast end are parts of a framed truss, underbuilt by a thick, presumed cob, wall. The purlins, re-used, project markedly. A fairly long bay, 14', led to a simple cruck frame; the upper parts of the blades had been cut off above the sharpest part of the bend, presumably at the time of modification, steeper principal rafters being attached instead. After another, rather shorter, bay was a post-and-truss construction, and the original house may have ended here, with a door in the end gable18. More probably, the house continued across an entry, as at Crockers, to a utility and storage area, but no trace remains of an original construction. Within the living part of the house, a framed partition, 8' from the cast end, divided a chamber from the, hall. The partition is intact, the rectangular spaces being filled by daub. Access to the inner room is by a doorway with a shouldered head19. The frame is lightly chamfered on the hall side, plain on the other.

 

The modernisation of the house was relatively late, a FH2 hood over the fireplace being the criterion. The fireplace occupies almost half of the width of the house, one side being the outer stone wall and the back and the other side being of stone. The wooden lintel is unusually high, the underside being almost 7' above the floor and resting on stout posts. The spacing of the studs is such that the rods can only be horizontal. The top coincides with the roof apex, as raised. An axial ceiling beam, chamfered, has a crude form of 'Wern-hir'. The west end of the house was built, or rebuilt, so as to provide a cross-passage, with a partition, not now complete, of stout studs, morticed into sill and head beams, the area between the studs being filled by daub on horizontal rods. Beyond the partition, there is a lateral beam at ceiling height, supporting a jointed cruck frame. Thence to the end of the house is another 9'.


The chamber at the east end is now a service-room, while the whole of the west end is a good sized sitting-room, at first sight suggesting that there was a lower-end parlour as at Crockers. Village memory, however, recalls that there was a wall, of which a little remains, under the ceiling-beam, before recent restoration, and a photograph shows that there was no chimney stack at the end of the house nor any window in this end section, except perhaps at the back. The possibility is, therefore, that there was domestic use next to the passage and non-domestic beyond.


iv. Mannings.

 

The houses discussed above are part of the group in Stoney Lane. In the other two, later work is more dominant, and it is convenient to leave them until after dealing with houses elsewhere in the village. Of these, Mannings is in the main street, just north of Stocklinch Magdalen church, and if there was ever a demesne farm, the site is appropriate for the farmhouse. There is no direct evidence, but the farm was occupied in the 18th and 19th centuries by members of the leading families of Magdalen parish; its acreage was larger than others, almost 40 acres, and of these 8 were meadow, to the cast of the farmyard. The farmhouse, however, is not significantly different in size from others formerly associated with the Ilchester Almshouse Trust. It was sold in the year after our first examination, and we owe a particular debt to the new owner, Mr. R. J. Prince, for allowing us to share in the discovery of features which lay concealed behind plaster and wallpaper.

 

The building contains more of the features outlined in part 11 than any other. The roof construction, so far as traced, is intact. At each end is a characteristic post-and-truss frame, with 5 studs between tie-beam and collar and none above. Each frame was set on the inner side of thick cob walling. The word 'was' arises from the unfortunate necessity to rebuild the north end in stone, but the demolition involved made it possible to establish the precise position of the posts in relation to the end and side walls, as well as the nature of these walls. The front wall is original, of rubble, while the rear one is of cob, on a 18-24' plinth, except where an outshut had been added. On the front, rubble, side, the post was supported by the stone of the wall, beginning rather over a foot above the plinth; and at the rear, the post rested on the plinth. Exploration further along the house showed the same features, while another rear post, in the area where the plinth had been removed, rested on stones. The south end of the house contains an exceptional feature, in the form of curved braces between the posts and the tie-beam. A detail also visible at this point was that the filling between collar and apex of the truss was of vertical rods, with wattling and daub. Purlins are similar to those in other houses, except that there are only two on each side. Again there is no trace of original wallplates. During the demolition referred to, a spur was seen to be fitted to the rear northern post, but this was evidently later.


 

Mannings; detail of post-and-truss construction


Internally, there are three bays of approximately 11' 6'. The first is marked by a jointed cruck frame, originally open, and the next by a post-and-truss frame, shown by smoke-blackening on the tie-beam also to have been open.20 Another post-and-truss frame is 5' from the end of the house and forms the inner side of a smoke bay (Plate Vlllb). The vertical rods which run from tie-beam to collar and from collar to rafters are not the original ones, which must have been removed to give access; but sufficient daub was removed recently to show the groove on the upper side of the tie-beam which will have received the lower ends of the original rods.

 


Mannings; inner frame of smoke-bay (studs later)

The original plan of the house is not certain. If the front wall is original as is supposed, the front doorway, with another opposed to it at the back of the house, will be in its original site. The area to the north is bisected by the open cruck frame, but was presumably partitioned unequally, as at Brakes Cottage, to provide for an inner chamber. Next to the passage, there has been recent rebuilding, including the construction of a fireplace whose brick flue is applied to the wall, and all that one can say is that it is probable that there was a hearth at the same place, as in other houses. If so, it is likely to have been succeeded by a fireplace of modest size, the main work being done in the kitchen, where the hearth area was large.



 Mannings; FH2 (left) inside smoke-bay


Modernisation appears to have been done fairly late in the 16th century, to judge by ceiling beam stops and a firehood inside the smoke bay. This hood came to light dramatically, after a small experimental hole had been made in the plaster of a bedroom wall. More was visible later after Mr. Prince had made openings at two other points, but space was too confined for close examination to be possible. As far as could be judged, the type was FH2. The south side of the former smoke bay, i.e. against the end wall and gable is heavily encrusted by a tarry deposit, showing that it was in use for a substantial time, but the hood within has retained its clean surface of mud and plaster (Plate Vllc). The hood is, carried by the cob wall at the back, while on the kitchen side it springs from a lintel which stretches from one side of the room to the other. The lintel is presumed to rest on a pier against the front wall; a second pier is well over halfway across the room; and the end of the lintel is halved into one of the posts which carried the smoke bay. The sides of the hood rise from near the front wall and from the intermediate pier. The area enclosed is substantially greater than we have noted for other FH2 hoods.



 

Mannings; partition with horizontal
rods and beam with keeled stops over.
 

Other work of the period included framed partitions on either side of the entry (now mostly replaced by recent brick, save for the head beams), and another under the jointed cruck. The last is well preserved, and recent removal of the daub and exterior plaster shows that the frame consists of studs morticed into head and sill beams, at convenient intervals for insertion of horizontal rods to carry the daub. There is a doorway between the hall and the inner room, which remained unheated. In the inner room, a ceiling beam runs from side to side of the house, while one in the hall is axial, carried on the partitions, and a little off centre, as though it were brought to the side of a fireplace. In both rooms the ceiling beams are carefully chamfered, and finished with keeled stops (Plate Vllld). The upper rooms are low, lighted now by dormer windows, and the original light may have come principally from an end window at the north end. This was created by cutting away the filling between two of the studs and inserting a mullion (now gone), the frame thus made being marked by chamfering round the edges. The staircase is modern, but in the site where it would be expected, whether a newel stair or a ladder, parallel with the fireplace.

At the back of the house, at the kitchen end, is an outshut, to which a date cannot be readily assigned. The original wall and plinth were removed, with the curious result of leaving a post of the smoke-bay freestanding. It is now hidden again. The space was filled by a timber-framed partition, and it is possible that this could have been as late as the eighteenth century, when a brick bread-oven was built on a rubble base on the road side of the fireplace. Above the bread- oven, the width of the firehood was reduced by a partition, so that there is a second instance of a clean exterior and an interior heavily covered by tar and smoke. At the other end of the house, the unheated room at some stage went over to farm purposes, there being evidence that at one time it was used as a dairy. At the south end, probably in the nineteenth century, a two-storeyed bay, of inferior construction was added, with a fireplace connected into the kitchen firehood; and this addition, later, fell into partial decay.


v. Underhill Farmhouse.

 

This is the building mentioned earlier as lying among Ottersey property, along Owl Street. It is so near the manor house and the church that it may have been the predecessor of the present Manor farm house; at any rate, it formed part of the Manor farm property at the time of the 1839 tithe survey. The house is introduced at this point since it has features in common with Mannings and may help towards interpreting part of that building. The axis is almost northeast- southwest, but for ease of description it is treated as though it were north-south.


The original structure was of three bays, or, since the south wall has been completely rebuilt and has none of the characteristics found in other houses, possibly four, the south one having gone. In the visible building the bays are marked, approximately equally, by two jointed-cruck frames. At the end is a timber-framed gable, much hidden by wallpaper, and this is the inner side of a smoke-bay, of similar proportions to that at Mannings. The present cross-passage is almost exactly midway between the two cruck frames, so that, as the house stands, there was a room each side of the entry, all being open to the roof.


In the sixteenth century, the south area was storeyed over, the ceiling being framed, with six compartments, steeply chamfered as at Crockers (111 ii) and The Chantry (111 vi). A fireplace was built, with back and sides of stone; on these and the lintel, which is concealed, was built a FHI hood. The front of the fireplace coincides with a cruck frame and the back is on the entry. The doorway from the entry is on the west side of the fireplace, and on the other side were stairs, now removed but shown to have been there by a small loop window cut in a block of stone. The entry was made into a formal passage by a stud-and-plank partition to ceiling height, and most of this remains. In the north room - to be termed kitchen if the counterpart be thought of as hall - no features of note are visible. Upstairs, the tie-beam of the smoke bay has been cut away, and the side of a firehood, constructed within the space, can be seen. From what is visible of long studs at the back and front corners, the impression is of a FH2 hood, but the front is inaccessible, so that it is uncertain whether the construction is basically of framed panels or of converging studs.


On the north side of the house, a single-storey addition was made at a later date. It has a door to the outside at the end of the house, while the narrowing of the smoke bay to a hood left room for a passage to be cut from the kitchen. The door to the outside suggests use which was not primarily domestic and this is so now, since the room houses the village post office.



vi. The Chantry.

 

The building was the farmhouse of a property whose descent is well documented, back to the time when it was a copyhold over 24 acres (customary measure). Early in the 18th century, without change of occupier, the copyhold was replaced by a 99 year lease, determinable by lives, and this system still continued when the Stocklinch Magdalen tithe survey was made in 1845. The 1792 survey for the Almshouse Trust shows an equivalent area, 20 statute acres. Most of the land was in closes, not strips, but was scattered over the parish, chiefly in Middle, East and Tunway Fields (the last being adjacent to West Field). With the tenure of the property went the obligation of feeding the representatives of the Bailiff and Burgesses of Ilchester when they visited Stocklinch, with;

"a good and sufficient dinner of boyled or roasted ffiesh and other necessary eatables for the steward and 4 or 5 other men at the most and small beer for them to drink, with stabling and hay for their horses, the sd. Bailiff and Burgesses allowing 10s. for every such dinner and entertainrnent"21.


The size of one of the rooms to be described may account for the attachment of the obligation to this house.


The house is in Stoney Lane, opposite to those already described and higher up, on a flat area in rising ground. The upper end of the house is at the west, and the whole of the original timber structure west of what is now the cross-passage appears to be intact. At the end is a post-and-truss frame, which, instead of being hidden in the wall, has been fully exposed when rebuilding in stone was done within the posts and under the tie-beam. As a result, characteristic features can be seen, from the absence of a sill-beam at the bottom to the jowling of the posts at the top and the projection of the tie-beam beyond the heads of the posts. The next truss, 12' inside the house, is partly visible, and corresponds with that at the end, including the detail of there being two studs from tie-beam to collar and none above. There are carpenters' marks on both trusses. A partition downstairs coincides with the inner truss, and in view of the certain example at Johnson's Acre across the road, it appears probable that this end bay was always of two storeys, service room below and chamber above.


The next bay is unusually long for Somerset, over 16', and ends with a jointed-cruck frame; none of this is visible, except on the south side, for a few feet above and below the joint. The position coincides with the west side of the present cross-passage, much of which is filled by the back of a fireplace. Whether this point was originally within a good-sized hall, or indeed how much further east the house extended, cannot be known, since whatever there may have been was demolished and rebuilt. Purlins in this western part are in the more usual pattern of three on each side, trenched.


New work in the 16th century may have been earlier than in some of the other houses, since above the fireplace built in the hall is a FH I hood. The front of this has been but away to form an alcove, but it has been preserved above the bedroom ceiling height, and the proportions of the panels at the side can be seen clearly. Under the hood, the back of the fireplace and the side next to the way into the hall are of stone. Beyond the doorway was made a stone newel stair; a few steps remain in a cupboard under the modern replacement. A framed ceiling, with nine compartments, was constructed over the hall, from side to side of the house. The chamfers are deep and the finish good. The stonework of both the front and the back of the house appears to belong to this period, since it incorporates three early timber-framed windows with mullions. One is in the front of the hall, one in the bedroom above, and one in the back of the hall, and all alike have plain chamfers on the frames and mullions. There is also a small loop window, cut in a stone, to light the staircase, and this detail is repeated in the rebuilt area to the cast.


The roof of this new area begins surprisingly with a truss only a few inches away from the jointed cruck, and therefore still over the west side of the cross-passage. At this level, the area is divided by a second truss, and a third is in front of a stone chimney stack; none coincides with a ceiling-beam below. All trusses differ in details of framing, save only that all have two collars. They are made of lighter timber than that used in the older part of the house and the studs are relatively close together. In the west truss, two studs form doorposts, to which a 'Tudor' head has been added, and there is a corresponding post and insertion in the adjacent jointed cruck. Two studs of the central truss also provided doorposts. The purling are much lighter than in the old part of the house, and they continue past the chimney stack to be supported in the stone gable. In this stack, at the upper level, there is a small fireplace, with stone jambs and lintel, the latter somewhat rounded.


A staircase, now removed but marked by the loop window mentioned above, led down by the side of the fireplace to a long room below. In this room, the side next to the cross-passage has been hidden by later work, but is thought to be of stud-and-plank. Two substantial, well-finished ceiling beams divide the length. They are boldly chanifered, slightly convex, and have well-shaped keeled stops. A third lighter beam is flush with the fireplace, and has no distinctive features. The fireplace is wide, occupying all the space available save for the stair area. It is of stone and appears to be integral with the chimney stack and the end wall. In the north-cast angle there used to be a later bread-oven, protruding through the end wall. In the gable is a two-light window, now blocked, with characteristic 18th century hollow chamfers. An outshut, on the north side of the room, facing the road, is undatable.


The presence of the bread-oven shows that in the 18th century this was the working kitchen. We have found it difficult to propose a satisfactory reason for the making of so large a room, with high quality details. The farm was not large enough for there to have been many resident employees. The easiest answer is that the size was dictated by the size and make-up of the family at the time of the 16th century modernisation; but the easy may well be wrong. vii. Pearses. (Fig. 3 d)

This building, below Crockers in Stoney Lane, was markedly smaller than the others described, if one disregards later additions. Nevertheless, it was described as a 'house' in the 1792 survey. There was half an acre of garden and a 3 acre field, close by but separated. Earlier 18th century lessees occupied other, Ottersey, land, but not of great extent.


The house has been much changed in the course of modernisation, and without the benefit of recollection and record in the village, we might easily have left it out of the group being described. The plan was difficult to recognise because of outshuts, of the absence of a front door- brought back by an old photograph - and of the presence of a parlour wing, which turned out to have been a carpenter's shop in the recent past. The visible evidence of the original form is sparse, even so, but was reinforced from the experience gained in other houses. At the upper, south-cast end is a typical thick wall, disguised, like the gable above it, by weatherboarding, but not enough to hide the projecting purlin ends. Part way along inside the house is to be seen a roof truss with tie-beam, collar and 5 studs between tie-beam and collar as at Mannings. Also, on the ground floor, at the lower end, beyond the entry, is a short section of framed partition; this is djerent from that at Brakes Cottage in that between the two remaining posts is a middle as well as a head rafl, the resultant rectangles being of such dimensions that they must have had vertical rods as a base for the daub filling. If the section of partition, as we suppose, is original, the house, from the beginning, would have consisted of an inner chamber, a rather small hall, an entry and a third, lower, room. The house is low, and while there is no positive evidence, it would probably have been open to the roof.


The post-medieval development of the house included a considerable fireplace in the hall, occupying nearly half the width of the room and backing on to the entry; and a larger one in the third room, with space for a later bread-oven on one side. Both fireplaces have chimney stacks of stone. At the entrance to the hall, there is not room for a staircase as well, but in view of the height of the inserted ceiling in relation to that of the house, the upper floor may have had lofts rather than rooms, access being by ladder. The one ceiling-beam across the hall is of generous size, well chamfered and with doubly keeled stops. One door-frame has survived recent restoration, though it has been moved; it has a 'Tudor' head, and parts of the posts have been cut away at the level appropriate to allowing barrels to pass easily.

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